March 31, 2023

Ancient Indian History

Syllabus for Optional Mains

SourcesSources of Prehistory, Proto History and History
Pre-History and Early CulturesGeographical factors;  Hunting and gathering (Paleolithic and Mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (Neolithic).

Copper Age and Artistic development in Pottery (Chalcolithic Cultures)

Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry (Megalithic Cultures)
Indus Valley CivilizationOrigin, date, extent, characteristics, Decline, survival and significance, Art and architecture.
Aryans and Vedic Period, Early Vedic Period to Later Vedic PeriodExpansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economic life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
Mahajanapadas, Magadha, Jainism, BuddhismFormation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
Mauryan Empire, ASHOKA, Sungas, KanvasFoundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; 

Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature. Disintegration of the empire; 

Sungas and Kanvas.  
Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, KshatrapasContact with outside world; Growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, Development of religions, Mahayana, Social conditions; Art, architecture, culture, literature and science.
East, West, DeccanEarly State and Society in Kharavela, Satavahanas, Art and architecture.

Buddhist centres; 

Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; 

Polity of Rashtrakutas, Palas, Gurjara Pratihara

Kadambas, Senas, Paramaras 
Guptas and VardhanasThe Guptas – Samudragupta; Skandagupta; Polity  and administration; Classical Age;

Decline of Gupta;

Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land Grants, Feudalism;

Major philosophical thinkers and schools, Ideas in Science and Mathematics, Caste system; Position of Women
Fa hien, Yuan Chawang; Buddhist Monks and Travelers;

Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi 
Maukharis, Vardhanas
Southern PolityThe Chalukyas of Kalyana, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Sangam literature and culture; 

Chalukyas of Badami and Pallavas; The Cholas: Rajaraja, Rajendra I – Naval Expeditions; Administration, Local Self Government, village economy and society

Past Year Questions – Ancient Indian History